Social Sciences or Humanities deal with the scientific study of human society and encompasses several disciplines like History, Geography, Economics, Political science, Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology etc. It is very important in understanding man as a social animal and these social interactions define all aspects of his life. That is why this is considered to be very important in various competitive examinations, especially the UPSC Examinations for IAS. The main areas include:
A. History: Modern Indian history, Indian Freedom Struggle, Post-independence consolidation and reorganization, World History especially from 18th Century like Industrial revolution, World wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.
B. Sociology: Diversity of India, population, poverty and developmental issues, Role of women, Communalism, Regionalism and Secularism, Urbanization, Effects of globalization, Tribal Development, Social empowerment and welfare schemes etc.
C. Geography: Distribution of key natural resources across the world, factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries, Important geophysical phenomena (like Earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, Cyclone), Geographical features, their location and changes like those in waterbodies and ice-caps, flora and fauna etc.
D. Polity: Indian constitution, Union and States, Federal structure, Devolution of powers and finances, Separation of powers, Parliament and State Legislatures, Executive, Judiciary, Elections and RP Act, Constitutional posts, Governance, Transparency and accountability, e-governance, Role of civil services, International Relations, International Institutions etc.
E. Economics: Basic principles, Planning, Budgeting, Mobilization of resources, Inclusive growth, Sustainable Development, Employment, Major crops, Irrigation systems, Storage, Transport and marketing of agricultural produce, e-technology for farmers, Farm subsidies, MSP, PDS, Food security, Food processing, Supply chain management, Technology missions, Land reforms, Economic liberalization, Industrial policy, Infrastructure, Investment models etc.